Sunday, December 1, 2019
Intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks, and patents, is a phrase that is often used in reference to different unique kinds of creations of the human mind or intellect for which the creators are given certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets. The intangible assets include, but not limited to, musical, literary, various works of art, terms, signs, and inventions. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Intellectual Property Rights specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Internationally, the governing body is the World Intellectual Property Organization, and it is responsible for granting exclusive rights to the owner of the intellectual property for a varying period, according to the type of the intangible asset. Because of the benefits of intellectual property rights, they should be protected by all countries. In order to protect intellectual property, a number of agreements are usually reached to ensure that the owners retain the exclusive rights regarding their use. The first agreement is copyrights, which refer to the set of exclusive rights, specified under the copyright laws of a country, that guard the original authors of both published and unpublished works of literature from unaccredited reproduction and republication (Bainbridge, 2009). In this form of intellectual property, the creator of the copyright is endowed with the responsibility to control how the work is used for a specified period, after which the work is open for others to use. The second agreement is trademarks. These refer to any unique symbol or indicator used mostly by companies for identification purposes, for example, the products of Nike Inc. can easily be identified through the design of their logo. Once registered, a trademark has a legal protection and any unauthorized use of that trademark can make the originator to sue the responsible individuals for trademark infringement. The third fo rm of intellectual property is patents, which refer to the granting of exclusive rights to an originator for a specified time period for discovering any new, beneficial, and no-obvious thing (as opposed to the rights of authorship of any form of art or literature). Advertising Looking for essay on intellectual property? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More A patent is usually granted by the state in exchange for the originatorÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement to disclose the aspects of the invention to the rest of the people (Smith Russel, 2005). Another type of agreement is trade secrets, which refer to the initiatives an organization can put in place to ensure that it gains a competitive edge in the market, for instance, an organization can protect trade secrets by issuing contracts to its workers or by locking sensitive information away in a bank vault. Lastly, industrial design rights, often conferred for a period of ten to twenty-five ye ars, have been employed to shield the aesthetic design of items that are not entirely serviceable. Protecting intellectual property rights has many benefits. Importantly, the rights shield the originator from unauthorized use of his or her ideas; consequently, the originator can comfortably earn the sweat of his or her hard work. In addition, the introduction of the rights has played an essential role in enhancing inventiveness and creativity because the originator of the idea often feels free to disclose his or her inventions to the public without the fear of being misused. The costs of protecting the intellectual property rights usually vary from one country to another and the type of intellectual property to be protected. Further, it is important to note that the costs are far less compared to the damages one can incur due to the misuse of his or her ideas. Reference List Bainbridge, David, Intellectual property, 7th edn, Pearson Longman, New York, 2009.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Intellectual Property Rights specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Smith, GV, LP Russel, Intellectual Property: Valuation, Exploitation, and Infringement Damages, John Wiley Sons, Hoboken, 2005. This essay on Intellectual Property Rights was written and submitted by user Ariella Romero to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Major Samuel Nicholas, USMC in the American Revolution Samuel Nicholas - Early Life: Born in 1744, Samuel Nicholas was the son of Andrew and Mary Shute Nicholas. Part of a well known Philadelphia Quaker family, Nicholas uncle, Attwood Shute, served as the citys mayor from 1756-1758. At age seven, his uncle sponsored his admission to the noted Philadelphia Academy. Studying with the children of other prominent families, Nicholas established important relationships which would aid him later in life. Graduating in 1759, he earned entry into the Schuylkill Fishing Company, an exclusive social fishing and fowling club. Samuel Nicholas - Rising in Society: In 1766, Nicholas organized the Gloucester Fox Hunting Club, one of the first hunt clubs in America, and later became a member of the Patriotic Association. Two years later, he married Mary Jenkins, the daughter of a local businessman. Shortly after Nicholas married, he took over the Connestogoe (later Conestoga) Wagon Tavern which was owned by his father-in-law. In this role, he continued to build connections across Philadelphia society. In 1774, with tensions building with Britain, several members of the Gloucester Fox Hunting Club elected to form the Light Horse of the City of Philadelphia. Samuel Nicholas - Birth of the US Marine Corps: With the outbreak of the American Revolution in April 1775, Nicholas continued to operate his business. Though lacking in formal military training, the Second Continental Congress approached him late that year to aid in establishing a marine corps for service with the Continental Navy. This was largely due to his prominent place in Philadelphia society and his connections to the citys taverns which Congress believed could furnish good fighting men. Agreeing, Nicholas was appointed Captain of Marines on November 5, 1775. Five days later, Congress authorized the formation of two battalions of marines for service against the British. With the official birth of the Continental Marines (later US Marine Corps), Nicholas had his appointment confirmed on November 18 and was commissioned as a captain. Quickly establishing a base at Tun Tavern, he began recruiting Marines for service aboard the frigate Alfred (30 guns). Working diligently, Nicholas raised five companies of Marines by the end of the year. This proved sufficient to provide detachments for the ships of the Continental Navy then at Philadelphia. Samuel Nicholas - Baptism of Fire: Having completed recruiting, Nicholas took personal command of the Marine Detachment aboard Alfred. Serving as Commodore Esek Hopkins flagship, Alfred departed Philadelphia with a small squadron on January 4, 1776. Sailing south, Hopkins elected to strike at Nassau which was known to have a large supply of weapons and munitions. Though warned of a possible American attack by General Thomas Gage, Lieutenant Governor Montfort Browne did little to bolster the islands defenses. Arriving in the area on March 1, Hopkins and his officers planned their assault. Coming ashore on March 3, Nicholas led a landing party of around 250 Marines and sailors. Occupying Fort Montagu, he paused for the night before advancing to occupy the town the next day. Though Browne had managed to send the bulk of the islands powder supply to St. Augustine, Nicholas men captured a large number of guns and mortars. Departing two weeks later, Hopkins squadron sailed north and captured two British ships as well as fought a running battle with HMS Glasgow (20) on April 6. Arriving at New London, CT two days later, Nicholas traveled back to Philadelphia. Samuel Nicholas - With Washington: For his efforts at Nassau, Congress promoted Nicholas to major in June and placed him at the head of the Continental Marines. Ordered to remain in the city, Nicholas was directed to raise an additional four companies. In December 1776, with American troops forced from New York City and pushed across New Jersey, he received orders to take three companies of Marines and join General George Washingtons army north of Philadelphia. Seeking to regain some momentum, Washington devised an attack on Trenton, NJ for December 26. Moving forward, Nicholas Marines were attached to Brigadier John Cadwaladers command with orders to cross the Delaware at Bristol, PA and attack Bordentown, NJ before advancing on Trenton. Due to ice in the river, Cadwalader abandoned the effort and as a result the Marines did not take part in the Battle of Trenton. Crossing the next day, they joined Washington and took part in the Battle of Princeton on January 3. The campaign marked the first time that US Marines served as a fighting force under US Army control. Following the action at Princeton, Nicholas and his men remained with Washingtons army. Samuel Nicholas - The First Commandant: With the British evacuation of Philadelphia in 1778, Nicholas returned to the city and re-established the Marine Barracks. Continuing recruiting and administrative duties, he effectively served as commandant of the service. As a result, he is generally considered to be the first Commandant of the Marine Corps. In 1779, Nicholas requested command of the Marine Detachment for the ship of the line America (74) then under construction at Kittery, ME. This was denied as Congress desired his presence in Philadelphia. Remaining, he served in the city until the service was disbanded at the end of the war in 1783. Samuel Nicholas - Later Life: Returning to private life, Nicholas resumed his business activities and was an active member in the State Society of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania. Nicholas died on August 27, 1790, during a yellow fever epidemic. He was buried at the Friends Graveyard at Arch Street Friends Meeting House. The founding officer of the US Marine Corps, his grave is adorned with wreath during a ceremony each year on November 10 to mark the services birthday. Selected Sources Major Samuel Nicholas USS Nicholas: Samuel Nicholas
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Open House at Private Schools If youre applying to a private school, you might notice that many of them offer something called an open house. What is it and why should you attend? In the most simple terms, a private school open house is a chance for you to visit the school. Some schools have a block of time where prospective families can come and go, meet the admissions team, and take a quick tour, while others offer full programs that require families to register in advance and arrive by a specific time. Open houses may have limited space, so if its not clear whether registration is required, its always a good idea to check with the admissions office to be sure.Ã Exactly what happens at an open house can vary from school to school, but typically you can expect to hear from the Head of School and/or the Director of Admission, as well as one or more of the following things during an open house.Ã A Campus Tour Nearly every private school open house will have an opportunity for prospective families to tour the campus. You might not be able to see the entireÃ campus, especially if the school is set on hundreds of acres, but youll likely get to see the main academic buildings, the dining hall, library, the student center (if the school has one), arts facilities, gymnasium, and select athletics facilities, as well as a School Store. Often these are led by students, giving you a chance to ask questions about life from a students perspective.Ã If youre attending an open house at a boarding school, you might also get to see a dorm room or at least the inside of the dormitory and the common areas. If you have a special request for a tour, you will want to call the admission office in advance to see if they can accommodate you or if youll need to schedule a separate appointment.Ã Panel Discussions and Question Answer Session Many private schools will host panel discussions where students, faculty, alumni and/or current parents will talk about their time at the school and answer questions from the audience. These discussions are a great way to get a general overview of life at the school and help you learn more. Usually, there will be limited time for questions and answers, so if your question doesnt get asked and answered, just ask to follow up with an admission representative later on.Ã Class Visits Attending a private school means going to class, so many schools will offer students and their parents to attend class so you can get an idea of what the classroom experience is like. You may not be able to attend the class of your choice, but attending any class, even if its conducted in another language, will give you an idea of the student-teacher dynamic, style of learning, and if youll feel comfortable in class. Some schools will offer students the opportunity to shadow current students for an entire day, giving you the full experience, while others only provide the opportunity for visitors to attend one or two classes.Ã Lunch Food is an important part of a school, as youre going to each lunch here every day and if youre a boarding student, breakfast, and dinner, too. Many private school open houses include lunch so you can try the food and see what the dining hall is like.Ã Club Fair Schools will sometimes offer a club fair, where prospective students and families can learn about after-school sports, activities, clubs, and other things that happen on campus as part of student life. Each club or activity may have a table where you can ask questions and meet students who share the same interests as you.Ã Interview Some schools will offer a chance for prospective students to interview during the open house event, while others will require a second personal visit to conduct these. If youre not sure if interviews are possible or if youre traveling from a distance and want an interview while youre there, ask if its possible to schedule one before or after the event.Ã Overnight Visit This option is less commonÃ and is only found at select boarding schools, but occasionally prospective students are invited to spend the night in the dorm. These overnight visits are arranged in advanceÃ and are not available if you just show up at an open house unexpectedly. Parents will typically find lodging in town or nearby, while students stay with a host student. Visitors are expected to participate in whatever activities happen at night, including study halls, so be sure to bring a book to read or homework. Lights out rules are also expected to be followed, as are restrictions for when you are allowed to leave the dorm at night and in the morning. If youre doing an overnight, you may wish to bring your own shower shoes, towel, and toiletries, in addition to a change of clothes for the next day. Ask if you need to bring a sleeping bag and pillow, too.Ã A common misconception about open house events is that attending means youre absolutely going to apply. Usually, its quite the opposite. These massive gatherings of prospective families are designed to introduce you to the school and help you decide if you truly want to learn more and complete the application process.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Joan Alexandra Molinsky - Essay Example In 1987, however, Rivers life began to spiral downward when her husband, Edgar Rosenberg, committed suicide. This event, combined with a declining career, was the onset of a deep depression for Rivers, as well as the beginnings of bulimia. Rivers states how a devastating loss affects hunger in two ways - erasing it or launch it to new heights. "For me the suicide inspired a gastronomic space program." she claims (Rivers, 1997, p.98). She describes the beginnings of a binge - overeating rich foods until she felt bloated and her clothes became too small - at which point she reached the solution of self-induced vomiting. Occasional purges soon evolved into weekly then twice a day rituals. Rivers timed her purges to happen roughly a half hour after a meal; she realized she must admit the problem to her therapist when she pulled over to vomit in a rest area bathroom. When she finally admitted her bulimia to her therapist Dr. Michael Greenstein, his observation reflects the general state of her life: out of control. Because of this, one of the few things she has been able to control is her bodily intake and output, which has manifested itself in the form of bulimia. Eating disorders are actually psychological disorders and can frequently be triggered by traumatizing events. The proper name of bulimia is Bulimia Nervosa (BN), which translates as "ox hunger", and refers specifically to a binge and purge cycle happening at least twice a week for at least six months. Purging methods include self-induced vomiting, or the abuse of laxatives, diuretics or enemas. Bulimics may also resort to fasting or exhibit obsessive compulsions to exercise. Sufferers often share similar personality traits: they tend towards perfectionism, while retaining a sense of low self-esteem despite their accomplishments. Depression is a frequent contributor to the disorder's development as well. Unfortunately, since the psychology of bulimia is often related to larger emotional issues, both the condition and the original problems complement and augment each other, resulting in a worsening of all symptoms (Eating Disorders, 2005). There are several Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment (CB) methods for BN: such as various behavior, psychodynamic, family, or experiential therapies, or a Twelve-Step program using the disorder as an addiction. CBT is a process by which the patient comes to recognizes the true psychological issues, learn more constructive coping mechanisms in relation to these, and then modify their behavior to return to more acceptable eating patterns while preventing relapses. Anti-depressants frequently help, as they curb the appetite while inhibiting the root depression; different anti-depressants seem to work equally well (Wilson and Pike, 2001). With Dr. Greenstein, Joan Rivers learned to identify her grief of her husband's suicide and was able to return to host a daytime talk show through the years 1989-1993 (Wikkipedia, 2006), the ending of which coincided with the death of her therapist and her returning to live in New York. Her depression was growing worse. The combination of her husband's los s, her talk show ending, a brief Broadway show collapsing and the failure of her jewelry venture
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
The Current State of the Caribbean Is Better Explained Through Reference to Contemporary Rather Then Past Global Relations - Essay Example This report stresses that the very conspicuous feminist changes within the Caribbean would be noted in the visibility of Caribbean women in different occupational positions which were once reserved only for European people and the challenges to a transforming relationship between gender and global capitalism are also highlighted This paper makes a conclusion that globalization and its impact on the Caribbean thus seem to depend on several factors such as improved education that can highlight the particularities and specialties of the Caribbean region and bring out the features that would attract the world. Tourism would be a major reason for which businesses and industries would be willing to invest in the Caribbean and the region remains as an attractive tourist destination, making it a full blown participant in the global economy and the process of globalization. The importance of equal gender relations and the significance of comparative education have been discussed considering that womenÃ¢â¬â¢s position in society and especially within the Caribbean society in this context could be very important in bringing out the changes in global relations. Caribbean society is changing with the changes of global economy and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s relations may actually define how the Caribbean society projects itself to the world. The importance of education also should not be undermined as only a modern form of education within the Caribbean would help it to relate to a globalized changing and interlinked society.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Love, Death and Fascist Iconography Essay To the fascist artist, his or her own art is merely a vessel that encapsulates his or her own socially-motivated beliefs. The works of Yukio Mishima and Leni Riefenstahl, for instance, embody the essence of their individual nationalities at the height of their individual careersÃ¢â¬ânationalities that might transcend origin and geography, yet extolÃ culture, tradition, ritual and society. Ã Mishima and Riefenstahl exhibit incredible parallelism in their works. Mishima, in his short story Patriotism, describe the human form with such detail and meticulousness reminiscent of RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s style in her 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s films. Much like RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s The Last of the Nuba, the naked body is depicted as a means of fascist iconographyÃ¢â¬âthe body, perfect and pure in its own way, merges with a bigger community of bodies of like characteristics (Evans 31). Susan SontagÃ¢â¬â¢s treatise on the works of Riefenstahl, Fascinating Fascism, breaks down the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s appreciation and fascination of the strong and beautiful Nuba figure as examples of Nazi ideology corresponding to the idea of aesthetics for fascists. Sontag writes, Ã¢â¬Å"RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s portrait of them evokes some of the larger themes of Nazi ideology: the contrast between the clean and the impure, the incorruptible and the defiled, the physical and the mental, the joyful and the critical (par. 27).Ã¢â¬ This description is echoed in MishimaÃ¢â¬â¢s Patriotism, when the lead character Takeyama decides to commit seppukuÃ¢â¬âritual suicide by disembowelmentÃ¢â¬âas an act of redemption from the dishonor incurred when his comrades formed alliances with the mutineers.Ã MishimaÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery of Takeyama and his wife ReikoÃ¢â¬â¢s preparations for the ritual, as well as the metaphors he uses in describing the coupleÃ¢â¬â¢s physical forms conveys a fascination for perfection and beauty a la RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬âremarkable symbols of fascist iconography, as Sontag would consider. In its own effect, Takeyama, Reiko and the Nuba become examples of the Ã¢â¬Å"master raceÃ¢â¬ , where everyone is beautiful, strong, and does not age (Trimborn McCown 256). Mishima and RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s works are also parallel in such that their depictions of death are detailed, beautiful and almost enthralling.Ã Ã In Patriotism, death in is portrayed as a reward, a happy and celebrated ceremony that requires the utmost preparation. In the Nuba culture, death is a central event, along with fighting. In the Japanese culture, as evidenced by MishimaÃ¢â¬â¢s paramount detail in describing TakeyamaÃ¢â¬â¢s death, death is a way for one to demonstrate his or her enduring loyalty and nationalism to the Imperial system. Death in both Mishima and RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s works surpass lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s merriest eventsÃ¢â¬âbirth, marriage, loveÃ¢â¬âat times besting even life itself. Mishima writes, Ã¢â¬Å"All around, vastly and untidily, stretched the country for which he grieved. He was to give his life for it. But would that great country, which he was prepared to remonstrate to the extent of destroying himself take the slightest heed of his death? He did not know; and not matter (par. 63).Ã¢â¬ TakeyamaÃ¢â¬â¢s examination of self not only mirrors the authors suggestions of his own death wish, it also echoes the sentiments of those under the spell of a fascist ideologyÃ¢â¬âtheir so-called patriotismÃ¢â¬âthat converts their idea of nationhood as something not only territorial, but equally and incredibly spiritual. The young lieutenant and his bride chose their own death by seppuku, which may be seen as either an honorable and extremely devout approach, or as a self-destructive and deadly consequence of their fanaticism. Mishima unintentionally diverts the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention from this concept with his alluring illustrations of fascist ideals and concepts, again reminiscent of RiefenstahlÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery in her Nazi films. Sontag would consider it an absolute expression of fascist art, in the sense that it Ã¢â¬Å"glorifies surrender, exalts mindlessness, and glamorizes death (par. 36).Ã¢â¬ Above everything, Mishima verifies in his work and own life the burden that comes with the duty to abide by cultural traditionÃ¢â¬âduty can be all in one beautiful or ugly, life or death. Works Cited Evans, Mark. Movement Training for the Modern Actor. London, UK: Taylor and Francis, Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2008. Mishima, Yushio. Ã¢â¬Å"Patriotism.Ã¢â¬ Trans. Geoffrey W. Sargent. Mutantfrog Travelogue. 27 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã June 2009. http://www.mutantfrog.com/patriotism-by-yukio-mishima/ Sontag, Susan. Ã¢â¬Å"Fascinating Fascism. Ã¢â¬Å" University of California Santa Barbara. 27 June 2009. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/33d/33dTexts/SontagFascinFasÃ Ã Ã cism75.htm Trimborn, Jurgen McCown, Edna. Leni Riefenstahl: A Life. New York: MacMillan, 2007.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
THE POSITRONIC MAN An extraordinary story about an extraordinary robot. In the twenty-first century the creation of the positronic brain leads to the development of robot labourers and revolutionises life on Earth. However, to the Martin family, their household robot NDR-113 is more than a tool, it is a trusted friend, a confidant, and a member of the family. Through some unknown manufacturing glitch, NDR-113 or known as Andrew has been blessed, with a capacity for love and a drive toward self-awareness and development that are almost...human. This story is set on an Earth, which is just starting to get used to the idea of robots. Even so, it is an earth that was not ready for Robot NDR-113. Andrew, with his ability to assimilate emotions, and an unexpected gift for fine arts, both astounded and worried people. In an attempt to become human, he develops several prosthetic devices, which prove a godsend to humans. Almost, however, is not enough. Andrew's dream is to become accepted as human. Facing human prejudice, the laws of robotics, and his own mechanical limitations, Andrew used science and law in his quest for the impossible, arriving at last at a terrifying choice: to make his dream a reality, he must pay the ultimate price. I must say that I didn't have very high expectations for this book because I am not a very big science fiction fan, but this book changed my mind. There are many reasons why this particular book changed my view on science fiction. One of the major reasons for my enjoyment of this book is the way in which it was written. Isaac Asimov and Robert Silverberg set this story up wonderfully. I personally liked the way the book is structured. The first chapter takes place at the end of the story so you start thinking about what is going to happen right from the start. Then, as you near then end of the story you return to where you began in the first chapter and finish the story with a thought provoking ending. Another major reason that I liked this particular story is because it touched on many ethical aspects, from different points of view. Such as, what it means to be human, how humans in general would be perceived by an intelligence that has no knowledge about the way we as humanÃ¢â¬â¢s reason or think. The authors also showed how humans will react when they find out that they can create a being with the ability to not just think in a logical pattern but also be creative and intelligent well beyond their own abilities.